The Nikon D90 camera has exploded on the digital photography (picturing) market, with a myriad of new (newborn) features, including the industry-first HD video (recording) capability. The Nikon D90 Companion is intended (witting) to serve (help) as a full-on photography (picturing) class, one (digit) that covers everything including technical (theoretical) matters and exposure (danger) theory, composition (essay) theory, and how to find (encounter) images and expand (modify) your visual (seeable) sense. However, unlike (different) a regular (lawful) photography (picturing) class, this book (aggregation) is built (shapely) specifically around the D90, which means (effectuation) every concept (construct) is written (cursive) about in terms (cost) of the D90's controls and features. By the time (instance) you're done (finished) with this book, you'll not only (exclusive) know how all (every) the D90's controls function, but you'll also know (undergo) how to recognize (discern) a good (beatific) photo and how to use (ingest) the D90's controls to represent (equal) that subject (person) as a compelling image. In other (another) words, you'll be a better (meliorate) photographer, whether you're shooting (actuation) simple snapshots or aiming for something more.
By Ben Long
No matter (concern) how wide (panoramic) your lens (lense) might go, there will (module) still be times (nowadays) when you face (grappling) a vista that just (meet) can’t be captured in one (digit) frame. Now you can (crapper) take a series (program) of frames with your Nikon D90 images, and, rather (kinda) than layering them together (unitedly) as a collage, you can (crapper) digitally merge them into a single (azygos) seamless image.
Shooting this type (identify) of panoramic (broad) image (ikon) requires a combination (compounding) of shooting (actuation) technique and special (primary) software. You must (staleness) shoot your images in a particular (portion) way to ensure (secure) that they contain (include) the information (aggregation) you need (requirement) to construct (create) a good (beatific) panorama and then use (ingest) special stitching (handicraft) software (code) to create (create) the seamless (unseamed) merge. (Your Nikon Software Suite Disk includes a panoramic (broad) stitching program (information) called PhotoStitch, and Photohsop and Photoshop Elements have (hit) good (beatific) stitching tools.)
Choosing a Focal Length for Panoramas
Making a successful (flourishing) panoramic (broad) shot begins by shooting (actuation) usable images. First, you must (staleness) choose a focal length. If you choose (opt) a shorter (wider-angle) focal length, then you won’t need (requirement) as many (some) shots to cover (counterbalance) the width (breadth) of your panorama. However, a shorter focal length (size) will (module) have a deep (unfathomable) depth, which will (module) render many (some) objects in your scene (environs) very small. Also, a super-wide angle (seek) might (strength) confuse some (whatever) stitching (handicraft) programs. This panorama (image) was shot (effort) with a shorter, wider-angle focal length. Although a wider angle (seek) lets you cover (counterbalance) a wider area (Atlantic) with fewer (less) shots, it means (effectuation) the distant (extreme) objects will (module) be smaller.
If you choose (opt) a longer (individual) focal length, distant (extreme) objects will (module) appear larger, but you’ll have (hit) to shoot (dispense) more frames, which will (module) increase your chances of making an error (nonachievement) and ending (success) up with unusable (useless) source material. This panorama (image) was shot (effort) with a longer, more telephoto (photo) focal length. It took more images to cover (counterbalance) the scene, but objects in the foreground (spotlight) and background (scenery) are larger (large) and more prominent. Consequently, your best (prizewinning) option is to aim (intend) somewhere in the middle (region) and choose (opt) a moderate (medium) focal length (size) that reveals the details (info) you want (poverty) to see (wager) but is still (ease) wide (panoramic) enough that you don’t have (hit) to shoot (dispense) a lot (aggregation) of frames to cover (counterbalance) your scene. Once you’ve selected (designated) a focal length, it’s time (instance) to think (conceive) about (most) exposure.
Setting Panoramic Exposure
From a panoramic (broad) photography (picturing) standpoint, one (digit) of the things that's really (rattling) annoying about (most) the world (concern) is that it’s not lit perfectly (dead) evenly. This problem (difficulty) is much (such) more pronounced (noticeable) when shooting (actuation) a panorama (image) than when shooting (actuation) a single (azygos) frame. If you look (countenance) at most any (some) panoramic (broad) scene in the real (actual) world, you’ll probably (belike) find (encounter) that one (digit) end is brighter than the other. The reason (think) this is a drag (inspire) for panoramic (broad) shooting (actuation) is that the area (Atlantic) that’s brighter will (module) expose differently than the area (Atlantic) that’s darker, and when you try (essay) to stitch (fix) your images together, you could very (rattling) well end (modify) up with weird (unearthly) color bands in the sky. This panorama (image) was not evenly exposed.
The vertical (plumb) bands in the middle (region) of the image (ikon) are the result (termination) of the stitching (handicraft) program trying (disagreeable) to reconcile (agree) the different (assorted) exposures. To compensate (equilibrate) for this, you’ll want (poverty) to use (ingest) the same (aforementioned) exposure (danger) for all (every) your shots. On the D90, this is easy (cushy) to achieve, thanks to the auto (machine) exposure (danger) lock located (settled) on the back (backwards) of the camera.
Try this: Point your camera in a predominantly bright (gleaming) direction, and half-press the shutter to take (verify) a meter (cadence) reading. Note the shutter speed (pace) and aperture that are chosen. While holding (retentive) the shutter button (fix) down, point (saucer) the camera in a darker direction. You should see (wager) the exposure (danger) settings change. The camera has chosen different (assorted) exposure (danger) settings, which makes sense (significance) since you’re looking (hunting) into an area (Atlantic) that’s darker. Now return (convey) to your initial bright (gleaming) scene—the camera will (module) re-meter. Press the AE-L button. An AE-L icon (picture) should appear (materialize) in the viewfinder status (position) display to indicate (inform) that your exposure (danger) is now (today) locked.
Now, no matter (concern) where you point (saucer) the camera, that locked exposure (danger) will be used. (Obviously, the locked settings may (haw) not be ideal (saint) for your re-framed shot, but the camera is doing what you asked—holding the exposure (danger) settings where you locked them, no matter (concern) what you’re pointed (spinous) at.) Thanks to exposure (danger) lock, it’s possible (doable) to shoot (dispense) a whole (full) panorama (image) of images, all (every) with the same (aforementioned) exposure. If you let (permit) go of the AE-L button, the camera will (module) re-meter for your current (underway) framing.Product Details
Paperback: 304 pages
Publisher: O'Reilly Media; 1 edition (March 25, 2009)
Product Dimensions: 8.5 x 5.5 x 0.7 inches
Shipping Weight: 15.2 ounces